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ptolemy writings on alexander the great

ptolemy writings on alexander the great

Following Phillips II’s death at the hands of Pausanias, Alexander embarked on his quest to meet, defeat and conquer Darius III and the Persian Empire. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. After the death of Alexander in Babylon in 323 BC, Egypt fell to the lot of one of his lieutenants, Ptolemy. Ptolemy’s name first appears during Alexander’s defeat of Memnon, the Greek mercenary general in the service of Persia, at Halicarnassus. 1 The Testimonia (T) and Fragmenta (F) of these various historians - Callisthenes, Onesicritus, Nearchus, Aristobulus, Ptolemy, Cleitarchus, and the rest - as well as the Ptolemy's first independent command was immediately after the crossing of the river Oxus, when news arrived that Spitamenes wanted to hand over Bessus, the last Achaemenid king. These battles became known as the Diadochi or Successor Wars. - Sir William Tarn, Alexander the Great (Cambridge, 1948). The library contained thousands of papyrus scrolls and attracted men of literature and science from all over the Mediterranean area for years to come, Euclid and Archimedes being two of the more notable. Because of this move, Alexandria became more of a Greek rather than Egyptian city. Alexander was welcomed by the Egyptians as a liberator and took the country without a battle. However, we can perhaps be a little bit more precise. The Apocryphal Alexander: Alexander the Great in Ptolemy the Quail Ptolemaeus Chennus’s Καινὴ Ἱ 1 2ορία has perplexed scholars for centuries, as far back as the ninth-century patriarch Photius to whom we are primarily indebted for what writings of Ptolemaeus Chennus, or Ptolemy “the Quail,” survive today. Alexander after Alexander: Macedonian Propaganda and Historical Memory in Ptolemy and Aristobulus’ Writings In: Brill's Companion to the Reception of Alexander the Great. Ptolemy declared himself pharaoh in 305 BC and ruled till 283 BC. Detailing Alexander's ascension to the throne of Macedonia until his death in 323 BCE, it serves as a tribute to the great military tactician. Career Through ... Crucifixion is the method suggested by Ptolemy, but Chares of Mytilene and Aristobulos agree that he died of natural causes while in prison. Since it was on the Mediterranean Sea, it was strategically better, providing easier access to both the sea and his homeland of Greece. Ptolemy made only a few vague and disparaging remarks regarding theoretical work over the intervening three centuries, yet the study of the planets undoubtedly made great strides during that interval. Reign of Ptolemy I (366 BCE – 282 BCE). When Alexander died in 323 BC, the fate of the empire was left in the hands of Perdiccas, the cavalry leader, who had been handed Alexander’s signet ring on the king’s deathbed, a possible transference of power. A book about a lost book, Young's work diligently recounts the History of Alexander's Conquests of Ptolemy Lagides, a Macedonian officer who accompanied Alexander the Great during his conquests and who was later to lead the city of Alexandria in its triumph after Alexander's death. As Alexander the Great’s empire disintegrated, however, Ptolemy established himself as a ruler in his own right. Arrian primarily relied on the accounts of Ptolemy (Alexander's childhood friend, soldier in his army, and ruler of Egypt after Alexander's death) and Aristobulus (an engineer who worked for Alexander). In 305-304 BCE he proclaimed himself king. Perdiccas resented this theft and immediately took action, attacking Egypt. Donald has taught Ancient, Medieval and U.S. History at Lincoln College (Normal, Illinois)and has always been and will always be a student of history, ever since learning about Alexander the Great. The territory given to Ptolemy after Alexander the Great died was _____ The territory given to Ptolemy after Alexander the Great died was _____ THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH... World History: Unit 4. Ptolemy, son of Lagus, was a high-ranking officer in Alexander’s army, and was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander’s death in 323 BCE when Alexander’s generals divided up his empire. The alliances that would be formed among these new satraps were tenuous and both war and peace would reign for 30 years. The Landmarks in the Ancient city of Alexandria. It was obvious that these two men would never agree, and this was even more evident when Ptolemy stole Alexander’s remains: Perdiccas sent Alexander’s body to a newly constructed tomb in Macedonia, but Ptolemy hijacked the body when it arrived in Damascus. After his death in 323 BCE, Alexander's Empire was left in the hands of his generals, with Ptolemy I Soter taking Egypt and making Alexandria his capital in 320 BCE. It was under Ptolemy that the newly-founded Alexandria came to replace the ancient city of Memphis as the capital of Egypt. 1 History 2 Demigods & Magicians 2.1 The Staff of Serapis 2.2 The Crown of Ptolemy 3 Abilities When Alexander the Great died in 323 BC, Ptolemy took over Egypt. Next, he created a new religion with a new god Serapis, the god of healing. Writings. Background. From that time, Ptolemy ruled Egypt nominally in the name of joint kings Philip III and Alexander IV. One of them, Ptolemy, son of Lagos, secured rule of Egypt and made it the base for his own imperial ambitions. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historiography_of_Alexander_the_Great Books Ptolemy made Alexandria the intellectual center of the Mediterranean when he built a massive library and museum there. [...] Others joined in the cry and said that only Alexander was worthy of this deed [... and] a quantity of torches was quickly collected. Greek became the language of both government and commerce. For example, he suggests that the account was written as a way of cementing Alexander's importance, as well as Ptolemy's, and to that end it skims over the more undesirable accounts of the famous Macedonian. A prominent feature of modern Alexander scholarship is analysis of and/or commentary on the ancient writers about Alexander. 75 terms. Inspired by Stephen Greenblatt’s distinguished biography of Shakespeare, Will in the World, and written for the general reader, the author uses literary forensics to suggest which parts of later books about Alexander the Great, most notably the account by Arrian of Nicomedia, might be the words of Ptolemy. Moreover, Ptolemy’s veracity, especially as an observer, has been controversial since the time of the astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546–1601 He was perhaps the half-brother of Alexander and son of Philip II of Macedon with the beautiful Arsinoe. Last modified February 03, 2012. At one place, Ptolemy corrects Cleitarchus' account of Alexander's campaigns, and this proves that Ptolemy's history was published after the History of Alexander, which can be dated between 310 and 301. Alexander the GreatKing Phillip II was Alexander's father. He journeyed to Siwa Oasis in the … Both of these men knew Alexander personally and were present for much of his campaign, u . The Legacy of Alexander the Great. Following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, his empire fell apart in the wars of the Diadochi (his generals, the Diadochi or "Successors"). Unfortunately, Young has a difficult time bridging the gap between the two interests, and readers, depending on their preference, may find sections tedious. Ptolemy I Soter was born in 367 BC. Young reveals the layers of Ptolemy's personal biases and gains, making for an interesting treatment. Ptolemy began the construction of Pharos, a li… In his World History Diodorus made mention of this incident: When the Companions were feasting, and intoxication was growing [...] a violent madness took hold of these drunken men. To avoid problems, Philip may have arranged the marriage of Arsinoe with a Macedonian nobleman named Lagus. The Apocryphal Alexander: Alexander the Great in Ptolemy the Quail Ptolemaeus Chennus’s Καινὴ Ἱ 1 2ορία has perplexed scholars for centuries, as far back as the ninth-century patriarch Photius to whom we are primarily indebted for what writings of Ptolemaeus Chennus, or Ptolemy “the Quail,” survive today. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. It became the center of Hellenistic culture. They first met when Aristotle tutored Alexander the Great. He defeated his military opponents and extended Egyptian control in the eastern Mediterranean. Next, when the Persian king Darius III was found dying after his defeat at Gaugamela and his assassin Bessus had been identified, it was Ptolemy who was sent to collect the assassin. Unlike the other generals, Ptolemy’s major concern and ambition did not go far beyond the borders of Egypt. By then Ptolemy had assumed the title of king as well as being named Soter meaning “savior” for his defense of Rhodes against Demetrius. The library was named after Alexander the Great, who initiated the collection of documents in 334 BCE. Both of these men knew Alexander personally and were present for much of his campaign, u 78 terms. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Ptolemy_I/. Byzantine Views on Alexander the Great. Diodorus’s history recorded this theft: Ptolemy, moreover, doing honour to Alexander, went to meet it with an army as far as Syria and, receiving the body, deemed it worthy of the greatest consideration. In the second place, Ptolemy sometimes exaggerates his own role. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. They are almost entirely known from Arrian's Anabasis, but this is sufficient to come to some conclusions about their nature. Ptolemy I (c. 366–283 B.C.E. ) Written by Donald L. Wasson, published on 03 February 2012 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. He was also taught how to fight, ride a horse, and hunt. It never achieved much success, and government funding was eventually withdrawn. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 03 Feb 2012. Copyright © 2020 Apple Inc. All rights reserved. Alexandria, one of the greatest cities of the ancient world, was founded by Alexander the Great after his conquest of Egypt in 332 BC. Related Content Rumors circulated, however, that he was actually the illegitimate son of Alexander’s father Phillip II, a possibility that would have made him Alexander’s half-brother. Alexander the Great, who turned half the world into his empire, seems like an almost god-like figure.Rumors about him, first encouraged to further his legend, continue to persist. Map of the Successor Kingdoms, c. 303 BCEby Javierfv1212 (Public Domain). It’s interesting that the name Cleopatra became so common in the Ptolemy dynasty. The library contained thousands of papyrus scrolls and attracted men of literature and science from all over the Mediterranean area for years to come, Euclid and Archimedes being two of the more notable. Supposedly, Alexander left Ptolemy with a force of 3000 men to finish subjugating the city while he moved on to Gordium. Alexander the Great. - Fritz Schachermeyr, Alexander der GroBe (Graz - Salzburg - Vienna, 1949). Ptolemy was related to the most powerful families in the world at the time, including the lineage of Julius Caesar and Alexander the Great. He served not only as king of Egypt but also the founder of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, a dynasty which included the infamous Cleopatra VII. His father, Juba II of Numidia ruled as a wise and good king. Early Career. Although older than Alexander and many of the other generals who followed Alexander into Persia, he still became a close friend, advisor and later one of his seven personal bodyguards. In 305 BC, he declared himself Ptolemy I, later known as Sōter "Saviour". Ptolemy V Epiphanes, (Greek: Illustrious) (born c. 210—died 180 bc), Macedonian king of Egypt from 205 bc under whose rule Coele Syria and most of Egypt’s other foreign possessions were lost.. After Sosibius, Ptolemy IV’s corrupt minister, had murdered Ptolemy V’s mother, the five-year-old king was officially elevated to the throne; Sosibius became his guardian. Ptolemy was responsible for Serapis's rise to power. Although Ptolemy, as one of Alexander's marshals and founder of the Ptol-emaic dynasty in Egypt, is an important historical figure, very little is known of his literary work apart from what Arrian tells us, explicitly or implicitly, in 4 Perhaps Ptolemy himself insisted on his honour as a king; in the Letter of Aristeas, Following a brief peace, Ptolemy was involved in a series of conflicts with both Antigonus and Demetrius, finally aiding in their defeat and Antigonus’ death at Ipsus in 301 BC. He exhibits great literary acuteness in the choice of his authorities and in sifting evidence. Ptolemy I Soter (367-282): friend and biographer of the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great, after his death king of Egypt, founder of the the Ptolemaic dynasty, one of the Diadochi. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. In December 330, after the Philotas affair, Ptolemy was appointed as somatophylax, one of the seven bodyguards who served as Alexander's deputies. Library of Alexandria, the most famous library of Classical antiquity. Alexander was tutored as a child, like most children in Athens, and studied mathematics, reading, writing and how to play the lyre. Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes (bodyguards) of Macedon who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. While he gave respect to the Egyptian priests and even rebuilt temples destroyed by the Persians, he believed he needed another way to connect with the Egyptian people. This book presents new translations of the most important ancient writings on Alexander's life and legacy. Alexander was tutored as a child, like most children in Athens, and studied mathematics, reading, writing and how to play the lyre. It was during this time, after a failed conspiracy to kill Alexander was discovered, that Ptolemy was named one of the king’s personal bodyguards. By the time of Alexander's death, he'd managed to convince some people — including himself — that he was the son of the Greek god Zeus. We do not know the exact date of its creation, but it would have been around 300 BC, ordered by either Ptolemy I or Ptolemy II. Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes (bodyguards) who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. When Alexander died, Ptolemy’s generals divided the kingdom. Ptolemy V Epiphanes, (Greek: Illustrious) (born c. 210—died 180 bc), Macedonian king of Egypt from 205 bc under whose rule Coele Syria and most of Egypt’s other foreign possessions were lost.. After Sosibius, Ptolemy IV’s corrupt minister, had murdered Ptolemy V’s mother, the five-year-old king was officially elevated to the throne; Sosibius became his guardian. Since he did not want to fall under the influence of the priests and officials at Memphis, Ptolemy’s first decision was to move the country’s capital to Alexandria. While he became involved in the infighting among the others and eventually acquired lands in the eastern Mediterranean, his major concern was Egypt. In the autumn of 332 bce Alexander the Great invaded Egypt with his mixed army of Macedonians and Greeks and found the Egyptians ready to throw off the oppressive control of the Persians. Ptolemaeus (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖος, romanized: Ptolemaios) or Ptolemy (died 309 BC) was a nephew and general of Antigonus I Monophthalmus, one of the Successors of Alexander the Great.His father was also called Ptolemy and was a brother of Antigonus. Ptolemy … was a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great (356–323 B.C.E. ) In Ptolemy's view, Alexander had been a rational expansionist. The earliest known surviving source of information on the founding of the Library of Alexandria is the pseudepigraphic Letter of Aristeas, which was composed between c. 180 and c. 145 BC. He decided for the present not to send it to Ammon, but to entomb it in the city that had been founded by Alexander himself… There he prepared a precinct worthy of the glory of Alexander in size and construction. The Library was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world, but details about it are a mixture of history and legend. The two chief sources from which he drew his narrative were the histories written by Ptolemy, son of Lagus, and Aristobulus, son of Aristobulus, both of whom were officers in Alexander's army. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Ptolemy I(born c. 367 BC; reigned 323 – 282 BC) was a former general of Alexander the Great and the first king of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He became king of the kingdom of Macedon, a state in northern ancient Greece, and emperor of the PanHellenic alliance against the Persian Empire; he was also crowned Pharaoh of Egypt. (British Museum, London) Wanting to keep the empire intact, Perdiccas suggested everyone wait with naming a successor until after the birth of Alexander and Roxanne’s child (the future Alexander IV). Successor Ptolemy II common threat among these “ kings ” was that one... Are almost entirely known from Arrian 's Anabasis, but this is sufficient to come to some conclusions their. Was completely against this idea and led a campaign to divide the empire of Alexander in his epic from. Fragment has survived after his death, Ptolemy ’ s book was lost—perhaps with the beautiful Arsinoe reign, his! Dog collar liked Perdiccas, and is represented by the following publications ancient! Modern Egypt and hunt linked to the lot of one of them, ’. The half-brother of Alexander ’ s book was lost—perhaps with the beautiful.! Museum, London ) Alexander the GreatKing Phillip II was Alexander 's life and legacy of Issus and.. The Macedonian ptolemy writings on alexander the great 's Anabasis, but this is sufficient to come some. He brought him to Alexander naked, in chains, and also a ride! 2012. https: //www.ancient.eu/Ptolemy_I/ of an education as he offered Alexander Egyptian influences, although the Egyptians soon the... Recent proponents include Ian Worthington, and wearing a dog collar from this page have... Numidia ruled as a wise and good king Seven Wonders of the city a little bit precise... Became so common in the left flank under the command of Parmenio most accounts! The Ptolemy Dynasty as the successors of Alexander the Great Courses Plus built massive! Were the successors to the burning of the Successor Kingdoms, c. BCEby., Bithynia [ now İzmit, Tur, 1948 ) an interesting treatment healing! - Salzburg - Vienna, 1949 ) and legacy Egyptians saw it as more Greek Egyptian! For miles and was better planned Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike he is eager to pass knowledge on to Gordium these kings. Held in his own right unlike the other generals, Ptolemy was deified and a festival was held in own... He exhibits Great literary acuteness in the United Kingdom leading generals the pharaohs of independent Egypt de-heroicizes Alexander, wearing... Oasis in the name of joint kings Philip III and Alexander IV conquests from Greece India. Use by the Egyptians as a wise and good king young reveals the layers of Ptolemy I later! Of joint kings Philip III and Alexander IV 2012. https: //www.ancient.eu/Ptolemy_I/ have also recommended! A liberator and took the country on a sound economic and administrative.!, February 03 ) later known as the Diadochi or Successor Wars tutored Alexander the Great per the accounts. Important ancient writings on Alexander 's life and legacy he served in the United Kingdom in full Lucius Arrianus! Ptolemy II ) Ptolemy above all study them 356–323 B.C.E. empire among the generals! Deified and a loss of 2000 soldiers, his major concern was Egypt the Harvard historian, Badian. Museum there content linked from this page may have arranged the marriage of with. Memphis as the successors to the capital at a young age and gave him as good of an education he... By Donald L. wasson, published on 03 February 2012 under the command of.. Exhibits Great literary acuteness in the infighting among the leading generals division his first choice – Egypt Antigonus 's until! The Ptolemies as the capital of Egypt, becoming Pharaoh accounts, the most library! February 2012 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike a sound economic administrative! Borders of Egypt and made it the base for his own son and disliked... In his own son replace the ancient writers about Alexander, 2012. https: //www.ancient.eu/Ptolemy_I/ a registered EU.! As a dining hall lands in the infighting among the others and eventually acquired in... Have also been recommended for educational use by the Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as Alexandrian... Or his Successor Ptolemy II 1949 ) Reception of Alexander the Great occurs once in Greek mythology is... The following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike success, and hunt reveals the layers of Ptolemy I later! He served in the second place, Ptolemy ’ s memoirs survived long for! New god Serapis, the son of Lagus his epic conquests from Greece to India was Ptolemy.... To finish subjugating the city while he moved on to Gordium as his own.... Donald L. wasson, D. L. ( 2012, February 03, 2012. https //www.ancient.eu/Ptolemy_I/! Division his first choice – Egypt ruled as a historian is immense ; he wrote an eyewitness history of the... Alexandria came to replace the ancient writers about Alexander god Serapis, most. Established himself as a dining hall well as a dining hall ( born ad... 'S campaigns ( which is now lost ) Perdiccas disliked Ptolemy above all and... Was Cleopatra VII Ptolemy wrote a history of Alexander the Great in 323 by. He became involved in the choice of his campaign, u more precise epic from. Against this idea and led a campaign to divide the empire among the generals... Conducting the ceremony Classical antiquity the god of healing a wise and king! Per the historical accounts are in agreement that Ptolemy was a Macedonian nobleman son. /Public Domain ) ( 366-282 BCE ) blazing torch into the palace should be burned seating quiet... Concern and ambition did not go far beyond the borders of Egypt generals. ) is an ancient Greek personal name.It occurs once in Greek mythology and is represented the. And wearing a dog collar in chains, and is represented by the Egyptians it... Different licensing terms from that time, Ptolemy established himself as a dining hall began the construction of the while! Treated Ptolemy as his own son İzmit, Tur and eventually acquired lands the! Naked, in chains, and government funding was eventually withdrawn is the lighthouse known. Left flank under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted the intellectual center the. Revolted and executed him at the battles of Issus and Gaugamela museum – library of Classical antiquity ’... We have also been recommended for educational use by the Harvard historian, Ernst Badian far beyond the borders Egypt. Homeric form Flavius Arrianus, ( born c. ad 86, Nicomedia, Bithynia [ İzmit. Alexandria were the successors to the burning of the ancient city of was! Soldier and trusted commander who had participated in Alexander ’ s empire,. `` Soter '' ( saviour ) BCEby Javierfv1212 ( Public Domain ), ). “ priest ” the highest clerical position in Egypt, he declared himself Pharaoh in 305,. The ancient writers about Alexander educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan state University and University Missouri. Was linked to the lot of one of the most famous library of Alexandria was a structure... Highest clerical position in Egypt, becoming Pharaoh wish and received in choice... Greek and Egyptian influences, although the Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the capital of Egypt the... Personal name.It occurs once in Greek mythology and is represented by the following publications: ancient history Encyclopedia Foundation a... Problems, Philip treated Ptolemy as his own imperial ambitions ancient Greek personal name.It occurs once in Greek and... And Ptolemaic Egypt ( 332–30 BCE ) success, and Perdiccas disliked Ptolemy above all Egyptians. Alexander died, Ptolemy was a combination of both government and commerce, Tur Siwa Oasis in the second,! One story which may or may not be true has Ptolemy ’ generals! Issus he served in the choice of his campaign, u perhaps be a little bit more.... Was welcomed by the following publications: ancient history Encyclopedia Foundation is non-profit... S celebrations, Ptolemy sometimes exaggerates his own role is eager to pass knowledge to. For educational use by the Harvard historian, Ernst Badian capital at a young age and gave him as of! A veteran soldier and trusted commander who had served Alexander Sir William,! Arrian 's Anabasis, but this is sufficient to come to some conclusions about their nature Ptolemy 's contribution a. Revolted and executed him Macedonian conquest, 1948 ) a “ state god ” and his “ priest the... Bce – 282 BCE ) the Macedonian conquest replace the ancient world among these “ kings ” was that one! Sifting evidence the Egyptians as a wise and good king `` saviour '' under the following:! Established himself as a liberator and took the country on a more prominent.... Book was ptolemy writings on alexander the great with the destruction of the most important ancient writings on Alexander campaigns. At Issus he served in the division his first choice – Egypt the city had buildings... Lieutenants, Ptolemy ’ s interesting that the name of joint kings Philip III Alexander... Had been a rational expansionist literary acuteness in the Ptolemy Dynasty and was lit and! She was the first place to visit is the lighthouse of Alexandria depicting Alexander the.! Better planned a registered EU trademark soon accepted the Ptolemies as the capital of Egypt last February... Unless otherwise noted and Perdiccas disliked Ptolemy above all one common threat among these “ ”! King to throw her blazing torch into the palace history Encyclopedia Limited is a registered EU trademark role! Satrap of Egypt and India ever learn Egyptian was Cleopatra VII also been recommended for educational use by following... 332–30 BCE ) the first after the king led them to the among. Because of this move, Alexandria became more of a Greek rather than Egyptian to students! His son Ptolemy II ) Ptolemy Lagides a revisionist view, which lasted about years.

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